FAQ :: Solar System

How do we get Electricity from Sun?

Sunlight is made up of small particles of energy called photons. Photovoltaic (PV) systems use semi-conducting materials such as silicon to absorb some of these photons and transfer them to electrons. This process is known as the photoelectric effect and it is the basic physical process by which PV cells convert sunlight to electricity. Special electrical properties of the Photovoltaic cell provide the voltage needed to drive the current through an external load (such as a light bulb).

What is Conversion Efficiency and how to calculate Efficiency ?

Energy conversion efficiency is an expression of the amount of energy produced in proportion to the amount of energy consumed, or available to a device. The Sun produces a lot of energy in a wide light spectrum, but we have so far learned to capture only small portions of that spectrum for conversion to electricity using photovoltaic. Today’s commercial PV systems are about 7% to 17% efficient. By comparison, a typical fossil fuel generator has an efficiency of about 28%. However, some experimental PV cells now convert nearly 40% of the energy in sunlight to electricity.

What is the Meaning of Photovoltaic?

The word ‘Photovoltaic’ essentially means electricity from the energy of sunlight. First used in about 1890, the word has two parts: photo, derived from the Greek ‘Phos’ meaning light, and ‘Volt’, a unit of measurement named for Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), a pioneer in the study of Electricity.

 How does ‘Photovoltaic’ differ from other Solar Energy Techniques?

There are 4 types of Solar Energy Techniques

  1. Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) Systems, which convert sunlight directly to electricity by means of PV cells made of semiconductor materials.
  2. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Systems, which concentrate the sun’s energy using reflective devices such as troughs or mirror panels to produce heat that is then used to generate Electricity.
  3. Solar Water Heating (SWH) Systems, which contain a solar collector that faces the sun and either heats water directly or heats a ‘working fluid’ that, in turn, is used to heat water.
  4. Transpired Solar Collectors (TSC), or ‘Solar Walls’, which use solar energy to preheat ventilation air for a building.

 What are the Components of a Solar Photovoltaic System?

A SPV System consists of

  • Hybrid Inverter
  • MPPT Solar Charge Controller
  • Solar Power management System
  • Mono / Multi Crystalline Solar Panels
  • Tall Batteries for Storage
  • Mounting Structures and Cables

How long do a Solar Photovoltaic System work?

A SPV System well designed, Installed and maintained can operate for more than 20 years. The Basic PV Module has no moving parts and can last more than 30 years. The best way to ensure and extend the life and effectiveness of your PV system is by having it properly installed and well maintained.

Where are SPV Systems used?

A SPV System well designed, Installed and maintained can operate for more than 20 years. The Basic PV Module has no moving parts and can last more than 30 years. The best way to ensure and extend the life and effectiveness of your PV system is by having it properly installed and well maintained.

How does SPV Systems Work?

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) panels are generally fitted on the roof in a northerly direction and at an angle to maximize the amount of sunlight that hits the panels. Solar PV panels on the roofs of homes and businesses generate clean electricity by converting the energy in sunlight. This conversion takes place within modules of specially fabricated materials that make up the solar panels. It is a relatively simple process that requires no moving parts. In most cases solar panels are connected to the mains power supply through a device called an inverter. Solar panels are different to solar hot water systems, which are also mounted on household roof-tops but use the heat from the sun to provide hot water for household uses. The technology to convert sunlight into electricity was developed in the 19th century, but it was only in the second half of the 20th century that development accelerated behind the need to provide reliable supplies of electricity in remote locations

How much Power does a SPV System produce?

The output of a solar PV system depends on its size. The most common household systems are either 1 kilowatt (kW) or 1.5 kilowatts. The average generation is 4000 to 5000 watts / KW /5 hours of clear sun shine in a day.

What would be Roof Top Area required for a SPV System?

The approximate area required for producing 1KWp would be 10feet x 10feet.

Can I use a SPV System to power my House?

PV can be used to power your entire home’s electrical systems, including lights, cooling systems, and appliances. PV systems today can be blended easily into both traditional and non-traditional homes.

Can I use a SPV System to power my Commercial Building?

SPV systems can be blended into virtually every conceivable structure for commercial buildings. You will find PV being used outdoors for security lighting as well as in structures that serve as covers for parking lots and bus shelters, generating power at the same time. Architects can use building-integrated PV to design buildings that are environmentally responsive, aesthetically pleasing, and produce their own power. Building-integrated PV provides a dual-use building material, reduces PV system costs by using the building as the mounting or support structure, and reduces utility bills through on-site power production.

Will the weather conditions affect the SPV System?

A PV system needs unobstructed access to the sun’s rays for most or all of the day. Climate is not really a concern because PV systems are relatively unaffected by severe weather. In fact, some PV modules actually work better in colder weather. There is enough sunlight to make solar energy systems useful and effective almost anywhere in the world. Most homes have adequate roof space for a PV system, and this can be complemented by integrating the system into walls or by using modules to cover a porch or patio in the backyard.

What is size SPV System to opt?

The size of solar system you need depends on several factors-such as how much electricity you use, how much sunshine is available where you are, the size of your roof, and how much you’re willing to invest. A SPV system does not necessarily have to cover 100% of your energy needs, but can cover certain portion of your demand.

What are disadvantages of a SPV System?

The SPV System technologies often have a higher initial cost outlay. This means that a person is likely to pay more money up front to purchase and install a solar system. Still, in nearly all cases, the high initial cost is recovered through substantial fuel savings over the life of the product (15-30 years).

 Can I connect the SPV System to the Utility Grid?

Each utility company has their own rules and regulations for connecting to their grid system. All connections must meet national electrical code and safety requirements. The Utility Company will provide a new meter, called a net meter, which will actually run backwards when you are producing more power than you need. It essentially reduces your electric bill by subtracting the amount of power you are producing from the amount of power you are using. When you are not producing enough electricity, your electric meter will work normally calculating you energy usage. Either way, the system will work without anyone needing to be there or to do anything.

Can I start with a smaller system that fits my budget and expand latter?

Yes, your system can be sized for your ultimate need, however you only need to install as many panels as your budget supports, but it must be understood that installing less solar panels will reduce the savings on you electric bills. You can install additional solar panels later when your budget allows to complete you system. Evaluating your existing appliances and heating and cooling systems is one way to reduce your overall electrical load.

 When will I be producing electricity?

When there is light, you will be producing energy. The greater the light, more power will be produced by the solar panels. Even in inclement weather, small amounts Power.